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Tuesday, May 18

  1. page Digestive System edited ... http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/digestive/ http://www.nexiumresearch.com/di…
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    http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/digestive/
    http://www.nexiumresearch.com/digestive_system_facts.html
    http://hes.ucfsd.org/gclaypo/digestive_system.html
    http://hbbase.com/common-ailments/digestive-system-health/healthy-digestive-system-foods-digestive-health.html
    http://www.aim4health.com/digestion.htm

    http://www.medindia.net/healthnetwork/images/uploaded-photos/1_82.gif
    http://library.thinkquest.org/2935/Natures_Best/Nat_Best_High_Level/Page_Shells/Digestive_Shell.html
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  2. page The Skeletal System edited ... The **ethmoid** forms the medial portions of the orbits and the roof of the nasal cavity. The…
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    The **ethmoid** forms the medial portions of the orbits and the roof of the nasal cavity.
    The joints between bones of the skull are immovable and called sutures. The parietal bones are joined by the sagittal suture. Where the parietal bones meet the frontal is referred to as the coronal suture. The parietals and the occipital meet at the lambdoidal suture. The suture between the parietals and the temporal bone is referred to as the squamous suture. These sites are the common location of fontanelles or "soft spots" on a baby’s head.
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    chewing motion.
    The left and right **maxilla** are the upper jaw bones. They form part of the nose, orbits, and roof of the mouth.
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    the mouth.
    The

    The
    left and
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    as well.
    The

    The
    left and
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    the nose.
    The

    The
    left and
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    the orbits.
    The **vomer** forms part of the nasal septum (the divider between the nostrils).
    +The upper extremity consists of three parts: the arm, the forearm, and the hand.
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    The next twelve vertebrae are called the **thoracic vertebrae**. These bones move with the ribs to form the rear anchor of the **rib cage**. Thoracic vertebrae are larger than cervical vertebrae and increase in size from top to bottom.
    After the thoracic vertebrae, come the **lumbar vertebrae**. These five bones are the largest vertebrae in the spinal column. These vertebrae support most of the body's weight and are attached to many of the back muscles.
    The **sacrum** is**sacrum**is a triangular
    The bottom of the spinal column is called the **coccyx** or tailbone. It consists of 3-5 bones that are fused together in an adult. Many muscles connect to the coccyx.
    These bones compose the vertebral column, resulting in a total of 26 movable parts in an adult. In between the vertebrae are intervertebral discs made of fibrous cartilage that act as shock absorbers and allow the back to move. As a person ages, these discs compress and shrink, resulting in a distinct loss of height (generally between 0.5 and 2.0cm) between the ages of 50 and 55.
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    +The Shoulder Girdle, also called the Pectoral Girdle, is composed of four bones: two clavicles and two scapulae .
    {http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/skeletal/shoulder/shoulder.jpg} Shoulder GirdleThe **clavicle**, commonly called the collarbone, is a slender S-shaped bone that connects the upper arm to the trunk of the body and holds the shoulder joint away from the body to allow for greater freedom of movement. One end of the clavicle is connected to the sternum and one end is connected to the scapula.
    The**scapula** isThe**scapula**is a large,
    Usually, a "girdle" refers to something that encircles or is a complete ring. However, the shoulder girdle is an incomplete ring. In the front, the clavicles are separated by the **sternum**. In the back, there is a gap between the two scapulae.
    The primary function of the pectoral girdle is to provide an attachment point for the numerous muscles that allow the shoulder and elbow joints to move. It also provides the connection between the upper extremities (the arms) and the axial skeleton.
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    The bones of the body fall into four general categories: long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones. Long bones are longer than they are wide and work as levers. The bones of the upper and lower extremities (ex. humerus, tibia, femur, ulna, metacarpals, etc.) are of this type. Short bones are short, cube-shaped, and found in the wrists and ankles. Flat bones have broad surfaces for protection of organs and attachment of muscles (ex. ribs, cranial bones, bones of shoulder girdle). Irregular bones are all others that do not fall into the previous categories. They have varied shapes, sizes, and surfaces features and include the bones of the vertebrae and a few in the skull.
    Bone Composition
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    of **bone cells** embeddedcells**embedded in a
    Types of Joints
    A joint, or articulation, is the place where two bones come together. There are three types of joints classified by the amount of movement they allow: immovable, slightly movable, and freely movable.
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    Most definitely a person would not be able to survive without the skeletal system. If we had no bones for our support, we would just be a blob of skin organs and blood on the ground, unable to move. There is pretty much no way that we would be able to function because human beings have to be able to move around in order to get food or water. Without bones there would be no muscles so we would be very weak and unable to do pretty much anything. It would most likely be harder for us to breathe as well because the ribcage wouldn’t be there to help push out air and expand to take in oxygen.
    Works Cited= http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/skeletal/skeletalsystem.html

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  4. page Respiratory System edited ... respiratory system. Where is the system located? The system is located in the nasal passa…
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    respiratory system.
    Where is the system located? The system is located in the nasal passage, oral cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, and Lung. The system is mainly located in the chest cavity.
    {http://www.medical-look.com/systems_images/respiratory_system_large.gif}
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    the body.
    What

    What
    organs make
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    a mistake.
    How

    How
    do people
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    remains healthy? TheThe main important
    {http://emssolutionsinc.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/washing-hands.jpg}
    {http://grdine.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/smokefree2.jpg}
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  6. page Digestive System edited ... · Role of the digestive system- The digestive system is a collection of organs that work toget…
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    · Role of the digestive system- The digestive system is a collection of organs that work together to digest and absorb food. Digestion is the process the body uses to break down foods into molecules that the body can use for energy and nutrients.
    {http://www.medindia.net/healthnetwork/images/uploaded-photos/1_82.gif}
    http://www.medindia.net/healthnetwork/images/uploaded-photos/1_82.gif
    Organs that make up the digestive system-
    o Mouth- chews food to reduce it to smaller particles, mixes the pieces with saliva, and senses the taste of the foods.
    o Esophagus- connects the mouth with the stomach. Nerve fibers advise the digestive tract that food has been consumed, resulting in peristalsis. Continual waves of muscle contractions, followed by muscle relaxation, force the food down the digestive tract from the esophagus onward. The lower esophageal sphincter constricts after food enters the stomach. The sphincter prevents the backflow of GI tract contents (acid reflux).
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    support animated gifshttp://library.thinkquest.org/2935/Natures_Best/Nat_Best_High_Level/Page_Shells/Digestive_Shell.htmlgifs
    o Small Intestine- completes the digestion and absorption of food. Chyme from the stomach moves through the small intestine by peristaltic contractions and is well mixed with the digestive juices. The small intestine lining is folded many times, in the folds are fingerlike projections called villi. Each individual willus has many absorptive cells.
    o Large Intestine- has no villi or human digestive enzymes. The large intestine is able to absorb water, some vitamins, some fatty acids, and the minerals sodium and potassium. The large intestine has a number of mucus-producing cells. The mucus secreted by these cells helps to hold the feces together. The large intestine also has a large bacteria population.
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    o Gallbladder- ducts leading from the gallbladder connect to the small intestine, allowing output from the liver to be stored in the gallbladder and eventually blend with pancreatic output as both are released into the small intestine for digestive purposes. In this way, the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder work with the digestive tract and all three are considered accessory organs to digestion. There is on digestion in the gallbladder.
    {http://www.healthbydrk.com/images/Digestive%20Health,%20Intestinal%20Health.jpg}
    http://www.healthbydrk.com/images/Digestive%20Health,%20Intestinal%20Health.jpg
    Digestive System Glossary
    Anus - the opening at the end of the digestive system from which feces (waste) exits the body.
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    Transverse colon - the part of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the abdomen.
    {http://ehealthlines.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/digestion1.jpg}
    http://ehealthlines.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/digestion1.jpg
    How people can make sure their digestive system remains healthy -
    o It is very important that you should maintain the health of your digestive system by consuming only the healthiest food. Of course if you want to improve digestion you must couple it with eating reasonably, gradually and frequently. Working out on a regular basis, managing stress and getting rid of your bad lifestyle habits will also be of great help.
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    o It is important to have a healthy digestive system. Disorders concerning the said system, as what was mentioned, can lead to various ailments and can cause gain weight. If you don’t want to reap the consequences of an unhealthy digestive tract, live a healthful and balanced lifestyle.
    {http://betterlife90.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/healthy_food.jpg}
    http://betterlife90.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/healthy_food.jpg
    What can go wrong with the digestive system-
    o An imbalance in the levels of "friendly" and "unfriendly" bacteria in the colon, and a malfunctioning ileocecal valve (waste matter in the colon can be mixed with useful material in the small intestine and eventually be absorbed by the body) can result in dysbiosis.
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    o Hemorrhoids- occur when blood vessels in and around the anus swell and stretch under pressure. They are prevalent among people over the age of 50. The most frequent cause of hemorrhoids is constipation. They can also occur due to pregnancy and diarrhea. The best thing you can do to prevent hemorrhoids is prevent constipation - consume plenty of fiber and liquids.
    {http://denverdigestive.com/art/DigestiveSystem.jpg}
    **http://denverdigestive.com/art/DigestiveSystem.jpg**
    What would happen to the individual if something went wrong with their digestive system-
    o If something occurs with your Digestive system you can get cancer, stomach viruses, stomach aches, and flu. You could also have diarrhea and possibly throw up.
    o Dysbiosis- Research has listed dysbiosis as a cause of arthritis, auto-immune illness, vitamin B12 deficiency, and chronic fatigue syndrome, and cystic acne, early stages of colon and breast cancers, eczema, food allergy/sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, psoriasis, and steatorrhea (excess fat in the stools).
    {http://probioticssupplements.com/images/What-is-Dysbiosis.jpg}
    http://probioticssupplements.com/images/What-is-Dysbiosis.jpg
    o Hemorrhoids- If hemorrhoids are ignored or go untreated because a person is too embarrassed to talk about them; they can become a more serious recurring problem. Many people wait too long for treatment and ignore the small hemorrhoids and then their only solution is to have surgery. This surgery can be painful and can take a person out of their normal routine for a few days. It is a much wiser idea to treat them early and speak to a doctor about them.
    Can an individual survive without the digestive system?
    No, people can not live without the digestive system because without the digestive system, we wouldn’t be able to get nutrients and water.
    {http://www.mamashealth.com/organs/images/dsystem.gif}
    http://www.mamashealth.com/organs/dsystem.asp
    ​ Works Cited-
    http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter26/animation__organs_of_digestion.html
    http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/digestive/
    http://www.nexiumresearch.com/digestive_system_facts.html
    http://www.medindia.net/healthnetwork/images/uploaded-photos/1_82.gif
    http://library.thinkquest.org/2935/Natures_Best/Nat_Best_High_Level/Page_Shells/Digestive_Shell.html
    http://www.healthbydrk.com/images/Digestive%20Health,%20Intestinal%20Health.jpg
    http://ehealthlines.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/digestion1.jpg
    http://betterlife90.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/healthy_food.jpg
    http://denverdigestive.com/art/DigestiveSystem.jpg
    http://probioticssupplements.com/images/What-is-Dysbiosis.jpg http://www.mamashealth.com/organs/dsystem.asp

    http://www.disabled-world.com/artman/publish/digestive.shtml
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  7. page The Skeletal System edited ... The **vomer** forms part of the nasal septum (the divider between the nostrils). +The upper e…
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    The **vomer** forms part of the nasal septum (the divider between the nostrils).
    +The upper extremity consists of three parts: the arm, the forearm, and the hand.
    {http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/skeletal/arm/wholearm.jpg} The Upper ExtremitiesThe arm, or
    The forearm is the region between the elbow and the wrist. It is formed by the radius on the lateral side and the ulna on the medial side when the forearm is viewed in the anatomical position. The ulna is longer than the radius and connected more firmly to the humerus. The radius, however, contributes more to the movement of the wrist and hand than the ulna. When the hand is turned over so that the palm is facing downwards, the radius crosses over the ulna. The top of each bone connects to the humerus of the arm and the bottom of each connects to the bones of the hand.
    The hand consists of three parts (the wrist, palm, and five fingers) and 27 bones.
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    The sternum serves an important function in the body. The ribs are connected to it by the costal cartilage. Without the sternum, there would be a hole in the bone structure in the middle of your chest, right above your heart and lungs. The sternum protects this vital area and completes the circle of the rib cage.
    +The vertebral column (also called the backbone, spine, or spinal column) consists of a series of 33 irregularly shaped bones, called vertebrae. These 33 bones are divided into five categories depending on where they are located in the backbone.
    {http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/skeletal/backbone/back.jpg} TheVertebral columnThe first seven
    The next twelve vertebrae are called the **thoracic vertebrae**. These bones move with the ribs to form the rear anchor of the **rib cage**. Thoracic vertebrae are larger than cervical vertebrae and increase in size from top to bottom.
    After the thoracic vertebrae, come the **lumbar vertebrae**. These five bones are the largest vertebrae in the spinal column. These vertebrae support most of the body's weight and are attached to many of the back muscles.
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    In addition to allowing humans to stand upright and maintain their balance, the vertebral column serves several other important functions. It helps to support the head and arms, while permitting freedom of movement. It also provides attachment for many muscles, the ribs, and some of the organs and protects the spinal cord, which controls most bodily functions.
    -The lower extremity is composed of the bones of the thigh, leg, foot, and the patella (commonly known as the kneecap).
    {http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/skeletal/leg/wholeleg.jpg} **TheLower Extremity**The Thigh**
    The thigh is the region between the hip and the knee and is composed of a single bone called the femur or thighbone. The femur is the longest, largest, and strongest bone in the body.
    **The Leg**
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    The bones of the lower extremities are the heaviest, largest, and strongest bones in the body because they must bear the entire weight of the body when a person is standing in the upright position.
    +The Shoulder Girdle, also called the Pectoral Girdle, is composed of four bones: two clavicles and two scapulae .
    {http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/skeletal/shoulder/shoulder.jpg} TheShoulder GirdleThe **clavicle**, commonly
    The**scapula** is a large, triangular, flat bone on the back side of the rib cage commonly called the shoulder blade. It overlays the second through seventh rib and serves as an attachment for several muscles. It has a shallow depression called the glenoid cavity that the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) fits into.
    Usually, a "girdle" refers to something that encircles or is a complete ring. However, the shoulder girdle is an incomplete ring. In the front, the clavicles are separated by the **sternum**. In the back, there is a gap between the two scapulae.
    The primary function of the pectoral girdle is to provide an attachment point for the numerous muscles that allow the shoulder and elbow joints to move. It also provides the connection between the upper extremities (the arms) and the axial skeleton.
    -The Pelvic Girdle, also called the hip girdle, is composed to two coxal (hip) bones. The coxal bones are also called the ossa coxae or innominate bones. During childhood, each coxal bone consists of three separate parts: the ilium (denoted in purple above), the ischium (denoted in red above), and the pubis (denoted in blue above). In an adult, these three bones are firmly fused into a single bone. In the picture above, the coxal bone on the left side has been divided into its component pieces while the right side has been preserved.
    I {http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/skeletal/pelvic/pelvis.jpg} n{http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/skeletal/pelvic/pelvis.jpg} Pelvic GirdleIn the back,
    The pelvic girdle serves several important functions in the body. It supports the weight of the body from the **vertebral column**. It also protects and supports the lower organs, including the urinary bladder, the reproductive organs, and the developing fetus in a pregnant woman.
    The pelvic girdle differs between men and woman. In a man, the pelvis is more massive and the iliac crests are closer together. In a woman, the pelvis is more delicate and the iliac crests are farther apart. These differences reflect the woman's role in pregnancy and delivery of children. When a child is born, it must pass through its mother's pelvis. If the opening is too small, a cesarean section may be necessary.
    {http://www2.gvsu.edu/~schnizlk/bone111.gif} http://www2.gvsu.edu/~schnizlk/bone111.gifBonehttp://www2.gvsu.edu/~schnizlk/bone111.gif
    Types of Bone
    The bones of the body fall into four general categories: long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones. Long bones are longer than they are wide and work as levers. The bones of the upper and lower extremities (ex. humerus, tibia, femur, ulna, metacarpals, etc.) are of this type. Short bones are short, cube-shaped, and found in the wrists and ankles. Flat bones have broad surfaces for protection of organs and attachment of muscles (ex. ribs, cranial bones, bones of shoulder girdle). Irregular bones are all others that do not fall into the previous categories. They have varied shapes, sizes, and surfaces features and include the bones of the vertebrae and a few in the skull.
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